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Episode: De-risking Drug Development

Episode: De-risking Drug Development

July 31, 2022

Where There’s A Risk, There’s A Way: De-risking Drug Development at the Earliest Stages

Lonza’s wide array of analytical tools and professional experience create a go-to solution for small biotechs looking to decrease risk in their drug development process.

An evolving toolbox of technology and advanced scientific knowledge is fueling the growth of a wide range of next-generation drugs in today’s pipelines. These novel but complex products, while offering the ability to treat previously unmet medical needs across the globe, also present many challenges. This is often due to their unique profiles that require bespoke development and manufacturing processes as opposed to using well-known platform approaches, adding even more risk to a space fraught with uncertainty. This increasingly competitive market leaves little room for error or delay. Therefore, selecting and optimizing the right lead candidate becomes critical, as this allows you to de-risk your drug development process and maximize your chances of success.

The largest cause of failure during drug development is most often related to safety and efficacy, so it is important to have processes in place that can identify potential issues as early as possible. Simple, cost-effective in silico and in vitro assessments can help look at potential developability challenges  in the earliest stages and allow for modifications to the drug candidate and its process development to mitigate potential efficacy, safety or manufacturability risks.

Many of the drugs currently in early development around the world are initially developed by small biotechs, companies that often require the support of service providers to assist and to accelerate the de-risking of their candidates This is where Lonza’s Early Development experts step in. Today’s guest is Raymond Donninger, Senir Director of Commercial Development for Lonza’s Early Development Services in Cambridge.

To start the de-risking process, the team can predict development issues very early, based on the candidate’s sequence and structure. This knowledge allows for modifications to the drug candidate and its process development to mitigate risk early and increase the likelihood of a successful first-in-human study. The experts then also apply in vitro tools to look at developability challenges  and to mitigate potential efficacy, safety or manufacturability risks.

Curious to Know More?

We previously addressed the importance of immunogenicity in decreasing risk in drug production in Episode 5. To take an even deeper dive into the whole process, listen to the conversation between Martina Hestericová and Raymond Donninger, the Senior Director of Commercial Development for Lonza’s Early Development Services.


KEY TERMS in Context:

In silico immunogenicity and human cell in vitro assays are two essential ways to de-risk a molecule’s development pathway . In silico tests run computer models to predict a molecule’s interaction with the human immune system; in vitro testing assesses the molecule’s interaction with human immune cells.

The attrition of a drug candidate occurs when it reaches clinical trials but fails for one reason or another. According to Donninger, an attrition rate of nine out of ten candidates has remained stubbornly high over the years.

Attrition happens when a molecule has therapeutic potential but safety, target engagement or developability (for example complex, uneconomic manufacturing processes)  issues prevent the product from reaching the market. The de-risking process aims to reduce attrition to improve the chances for viable and safe therapies to make it to market.

According to Donninger, a T-cell epitope is a sequence within the protein that has the potential to allow the immune system to recognize it as being foreign and then mount an unwanted and potentially dangerous immune response. To learn more about de-risking and immunogenicity, listen to this season’s Episode Five.

Episode 8: Colors of Capsules

Episode 8: Colors of Capsules

June 20, 2022

Capsule Manufacturing: Its Not Only Whats Inside That Counts

The recent EU ban on Titanium Dioxide and changing customer habits are shaking up capsule production.

Over the past few years, the coloring and manufacturing of pill capsules have undergone significant changes due to new EU regulations and customer demand for natural ingredients. And while originally invented to mask and protect the contents inside a capsule, research suggests that the color of a tablet or pill can affect how patients feel about their medication.

Until recently, manufacturers have primarily used Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) to create white capsules due to its efficiency in protecting the active ingredients from UV rays. However, this year an EU-wide ban on TiO2 has forced the industry to move towards alternatives that work as well, or better, than TiO2. To add to the colorant shake-up, many people are actively avoiding unnatural ingredients in their food and nutritional supplements, which has created a new demand for plant-based capsule colorants. Anticipating these changes and solving the technological challenges in a timely manner are key to a successful long-term strategy for capsule manufacturing.

Curious to Know More?

Listen to the conversation between A View On host Martina Hestericová and Ljiljana Palangetic, Lonza’s Associate Director of Hard Capsules R&D, about the challenges and solutions in current capsule manufacturing.



Pharmaceutical capsules can be either hard or soft. Soft-shelled capsules are one unique mold that encapsulates the contents, whereas the more widely-used hard-shelled capsules—such as the ones produced by Lonza—are two molded telescopic pieces of capsule: a smaller one contains the active ingredients, and a larger one encloses the capsule.

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a widely-used pigment in capsule manufacturing, as well as in food, paint and sunscreen. Considered completely inorganic and nontoxic from a chemical point of view, it is labeled as an unnatural ingredient for ingestion, and carries the E number E171. Earlier this year, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) announced a six-month phasing-out ban of the colorant over concerns about nano-sized particles of TiO2 accumulating in the body. The full ban takes effect in August.

The dip molding process is the manufacturing process for capsules. The final shape of the two pieces that make the capsules is defined by specifically designed molds, which are dipped in a bath of liquid formulation to pick up material that will, after the drying process, give the final capsule form, shape and composition.

Episode 7: Antibody-Drug Conjugates

Episode 7: Antibody-Drug Conjugates

May 2, 2022

Antibody-drug Conjugates: Next-Generation of Targeted Cancer Treatments

Iwan Bertholjotti and Laurence Bonnafoux from Lonza give an insider look at how these promising treatments make it from development to commercialization.

Chemotherapy is the first-line treatment for most types of cancer. However, one of the major challenges with this approach is that it targets both cancer and healthy cells, with patients suffering severe side effects. A new class of therapies, called antibody-drug conjugates, or ADCs, can target tumors much more precisely by harnessing the power of antibodies. The antibody can bind specific types of tumor cells, delivering a fatal blow to the cancer cells while sparing healthy cells. These promising new drugs have seen a significant uptick in FDA approvals in recent years, pointing towards a trend that could transform the way many diseases are treated.

While numerous companies succeed in developing promising ADCs, manufacturing such complex and highly potent treatments presents unique challenges. The intricacy of scaling up the manufacturing of ADCs leads many companies to outsource their production, and Lonza currently fabricates the majority of ADC therapeutics in the world. For the companies that choose to work with Lonza, the collaboration simplifies the process and streamlines the supply chain. Decades of collective experience in fabricating ADCs means that the drugs make it from discovery to approval in less time, improving patients' lives through more effective, targeted treatments with fewer side effects.

Curious to Know More?

Listen to the conversation between A View On host Martina Hestericová and two of Lonza’s experts on ADC manufacturing—Lonza’s senior director of Commercial Development of bioconjugates, Iwan Betholjotti, and Lawrence Bonnafoux, Lonza’s Head of MSAT BioConjugates.



Bioconjugates are a class of biopharmaceuticals developed by attaching two molecules together, of which at least one is a biomolecule. Examples of bioconjugates include antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), PEGylated proteins, and vaccine conjugates.

Antibody-drug conjugates consist of three parts: an antibody, a cytotoxic drug and the linker that covalently binds these two together. This approach combines the targeted delivery of the antibody with the cancer-killing power of the cytotoxic drug that would be too potent to be used on its own.

A cytotoxic drug is a drug that contains a molecule toxic to cells, leading to cellular death. Used in traditional chemotherapy, these molecules attack both healthy and cancerous cells. When linked to an ADC antibody, they target only the tumor. 

Targeted delivery of a cytotoxin is when a cell-killing toxin is delivered to a specific type of cell, such as tumor cells. This specificity allows for effective cancer treatment with fewer unwanted side effects for the patient.

Scaling up production for bioconjugates involves moving from manufacturing small batches for clinical trials to large batches up to five kilograms for commercial production. This major challenge for companies is essential for the successful commercialization of ADCs.

Episode 6: Manufacturing of Exosomes

Episode 6: Manufacturing of Exosomes

March 14, 2022

Putting Manufacturing First: Codiak Moves Swiftly into Clinical Trials with Exosome-based Treatments 

Sriram Sathyanarayanan, Codiak’s CSO, and Linda Bain, their CFO, share how the company moved into clinical trials in under 6 years.


Exosomes, extremely small vesicles shed by all cell types, promise to become a viable delivery system for treatments of many diseases. But until recently, manufacturing them at a commercially viable scale has been unfeasible. That is why in 2015 the company Codiak took a two-pronged approach to developing exosome-based treatments: prioritizing both the engineering and manufacturing tracks from the outset. A mere six years after the company was launched, this approach has proven effective, with two promising studies in the clinic for tumor treatments, while most other developers are still at the starting blocks.

The exosome field today holds the kind of promise that antibody and protein-based therapeutics did in the 1980s—the potential to improve both treatments and patient well-being is great. With a low risk of immunotoxicity, leveraging their natural abilities and engineering them to deliver targeted therapies could open new therapeutic pathways to previously undruggable targets. Yet as recently as only a couple of years ago, manufacturing exosomes was limited to small batches. Codiak has successfully increased production to thousand-liter batches, permitting clinical studies and greatly improving the prospective of widespread use. In collaboration with Lonza, Codiak is doubling down on their advantage with a recently established Center of Excellence for exosome manufacturing in Massachusetts.

To learn more about Codiak’s pipeline of therapeutic candidates with a potential to transform patients’ lives, visit: https://www.codiakbio.com/pipeline-programs/pipeline

Curious to Know More?

Listen to Martina Hestericová’s conversation with Sriram Sathyanarayanan and Linda Bain as they discuss the advantages of exosome treatments, how they are developed and why the company’s early manufacturing strategy is paying off.




Exosomes are nano-sized delivery vehicles generated by all eukaryotic cells. They are roughly between 30 and 120 nanometers large and originate when endosomes, or intercellular vesicles, are released into the blood, milk or tissue. Exosomes then become messengers and surrogates for the original cell. Their surface markers represent a location code and spread through the extracellular space in the body to communicate with other cells and deliver packages.

Commercial exosome manufacturing is the scaling-up process of moving from small-batch exosome production that uses ultracentrifuges to large-scale production that in many ways resembles the processes already used to manufacture antibody and protein-based therapies.  

The exosome’s lumen is the interior volume of the exosome where, through biological engineering, the therapeutic molecule can be placed. The molecule can also be on the surface of the exosome, allowing for two alternative payload capacities, depending on the target.

Immunosafety and immunotoxicity refer to how potentially safe or toxic the immune system’s reaction to a molecule may be. Since exosomes already have a history of low immunotoxicity – think of blood transfers – their immunosafety is already proven to be very high.



*Repost* Exosomes

*Repost* Exosomes

March 9, 2022

In this reposted episode from December 2020, we're exploring how a better understanding of exosomes is leading to new treatments and diagnostic technologies with Uwe Gottschalk. 

According to Uwe , the exosome revolution is already in full march. As researchers begin to identify how these cell-generated, nano-sized delivery drones function in the human body, novel drug delivery prospects are emerging, including applications for cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and spinal cord injury recovery. Perhaps even more exciting is the role exosomes will play in diagnostic applications in the near future, wherein a liquid biopsy, based on a blood sample, would detect cancer or other diseases both more easily and in a more timely fashion than traditional biopsies. One of the many challenges is the ongoing task of defining the manufacturing protocols and processes for this new biotechnological paradigm. Even so, the field is abuzz with new discoveries, trials and general optimism about the potential of these microscopic extracellular delivery vehicles.

Curious to Know More?

Listen to our special, in-house episode of the podcast "A View On" and tune in next time as we are exploring the manufacturing challenges of exosome-based therapies with Codiak Biosciences. 

Episode 5: Importance of Immunogenicity

Episode 5: Importance of Immunogenicity

December 20, 2021

De-risking Drug Development: Early Testing for Toxicity Saves Time and Resources  

Yvette Stallwood, head of Lonza’s Early Development Services, talks about patient safety and other advantages of early testing for immunogenicity in the drug development pipeline.


In the high-stakes drug discovery game, from IND filings all the way up through the clinical trial phase, regulatory authorities are now expecting developers to have an immunogenicity risk strategy in place. “It really is essential that drug developers assess the immunogenicity risk as early as possible in the pipeline, as not only can it impact the functionality of the drug, but it can also be a significant safety risk for the patient,” explains Yvette Stallwood, whose work at Lonza’s Early Development Services (EDS) is helping small and large biotech companies reduce risk with a “Right First Time” approach when developing drug therapies.

Drug candidates often fail during clinical trials due to their toxicity to patients, which is evident, for example, in an immunogenic reaction—where the drug triggers an unwanted immune response known as immunotoxicity. This can result in the loss of years of work and funding. Stallwood and her team encourage their clients to begin with in-silico testing, where up to a thousand digital models of potential immunoresponses can be predicted.  Once the digital models show a candidate to have a low risk of toxicity, the EDS team then moves to human donor cell assays—with the advantage of screening up to fifty different immunotypes. The ideal time to assess immunosafety and immunotoxicity is well before deciding on a molecule as a lead drug candidate. By understanding as much as possible about the potential product through early testing, biotech companies are better equipped to take the correct path to regulatory approval with a drug that is ultimately safer for patients.

Curious to Know More?

Listen to the conversation between A View On host Martina Hestericová and Lonza’s head of EDS Yvette Stallwood as they discuss de-risking the drug development process.



Anti-drug antibody (ADA) response happens when the patient’s immune system generates antibodies to remove and clear the drug from the body. This can impact the effectiveness of the drug molecule as well as be dangerous for the patient.

Immunogenicity testing is the process by which one can test for the body’s immune response to a drug. With in-silico testing, the screening can be done quickly for a large swath of different immune system typologies before moving on to animal models or, preferably, human cell assays.

Immunosafety and immunotoxicity refer to how potentially safe or toxic the immune system’s reaction to a molecule may be. They deserve the utmost consideration when developing a leading drug candidate.

De-risking is an EDS drug development strategy to ensure clients select the right drug candidate at the approval phase. De-risking avoids costly clinical trial failure through extensive immunotoxicity testing early in the process.

In-silico testing uses computer models to test a molecule’s reaction within an organism, such as a human immune system. The advantage is that they are quick and can test in hundreds and thousands of models. Since they are limited in their nature, they are only a first step. Once a drug candidate is selected as low risk using in-silico testing, further testing is needed using animal models or human cells assays.

Human cell assays, in the context of drug development de-risking, are in-vitro tests that use actual human immune cells to test immune system responses to drug candidates. Although they are more costly and time-consuming than in-silico testing, the precision they offer is essential to establish the appropriate data for selecting lead drug candidates.

Episode 4: Microbiome

Episode 4: Microbiome

November 25, 2021

Host and Health: Tailoring Personalized Medicine Using The Unique Microbiome Fingerprint 

Professor Eran Elinav from the Weizmann Institute of Science discusses how the interaction between the microbiome and its host is transforming personalized medicine.


“I believe that in the next five to ten years, exploiting the potential of the microbiome will be central to personalized and precision medicine,” explains Eran Elinav. His research into this second genome in the human body at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Isreal is shedding light on how these trillions of cells function and interact with their host. The individualized data from the unique microbiome fingerprint can be harnessed to tailor nutritional therapies to improve metabolic functions in the treatment of, for example, obesity and type 2 diabetes—with a wide range of further potential applications. And even small molecules found within the microbiome could themselves be developed into drugs. The future hope lies in the inherent therapeutic translatability of these insights from host-microbiome interaction research into treating the whole spectrum of metabolic diseases.


Curious to Know More?

Listen to the conversation between Lonza’s Martina Hestericová and Weizmann Institute of Science Professor and researcher Eran Elinav in this special episode of the "A View On" podcast.


Genome: All of the genetic information of an organism. When speaking about the microbiome, it refers to an entirely different organism that is comprised of its own genetic makeup from the host—the interaction between the two genomes is the subject of study known as host-microbiome interaction.

Microbiome: The extremely diverse ecosystem of hundreds, sometimes thousands of different species of microbes found in and on the human body. Microbial biodiversity is key to a healthy microbiome and a poor microbiome is linked to diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, cancer and possibly some central nervous disorders.

Therapeutic translatability: The ability to translate or apply basic research into therapies for the benefit of humans. As we understand more how the complex microbiome works, Professor Elinav asserts that these insights translate directly into ways to manipulate it and improve health.

Personalised or Precision Medicine: A general trend to adapt treatments to individuals instead of a one-size-fits-all approach. In the context of host-microbiome research, as the microbiome is unique to each individual, it could hold the keys to specialized treatments by harnessing the individualized data.

Episode 3: Antibody Biopolymer Conjugates for Ophthalmology

Episode 3: Antibody Biopolymer Conjugates for Ophthalmology

October 20, 2021

Bridging Business and Biotechnology: Kodiak Sciences Is Increasing Treatment Efficacy for Retinal Diseases

Victor Perlroth, MD, the Chairman and CEO of Kodiak Sciences, discusses how the company’s ABC platform medicines are designed to treat the leading causes of blindness.


Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of blindness in adults worldwide. This disease deteriorates the macula, a miraculous little spot on your retina that allows for precise vision in good light. Although several treatments exist for macular deterioration, they require frequent trips to the doctor’s office for uncomfortable but quick and routine injections directly into the eye. The required frequency of the treatments means that most patients miss appointments, leading to undertreatment of the disease and permanent vision loss. In a manufacturing collaboration with Lonza, Kodiak is designing novel antibody-biopolymer conjugate (or ABC) medicines with the same efficacy and safety with much longer durability, allowing patients to visit the doctor on a realistic schedule over the long term. By focusing on business implementation alongside formidable biotech R&D, Kodiak Sciences is on track to bring together the necessary clinical and manufacturing elements for an FDA filing in 2023.


Curious to Know More?

In this most recent episode of “A View On,” Lonza’s Martina Hestericová is joined by Victor Perlroth, MD, the Chairman and CEO of Kodiak Sciences, to talk about the recent developments in AMD treatment research.




Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common degenerative disease of the retina. There are two types of AMD:

Dry AMD occurs when the formation of debris (drusen) on the retina causes the macula to deteriorate over time. Patients sometimes experience vision loss and frequently experience substantial functional limitations, including vision fluctuations, loss of peripheral vision, and reduced night vision.

Wet AMD is an advanced form of AMD. While wet AMD represents only 10% of the number of cases of AMD overall, it is responsible for 90% of AMD-related cases of severe vision loss. Wet AMD occurs when the growth of abnormal blood vessels underneath the macula leads to leakage of fluid and blood, which leads to visual distortion, acute vision loss, and total blindness if left untreated.

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a sub-family of factors that stimulate the growth of blood vessels. In the case of AMD, these VEGF are overexpressed, creating leaking in the macula. This leakiness causes fluid to exit from blood vessels, causing swelling – or edema – of the retina and loss of vision.

An antibody biopolymer conjugate (ABC) is Kodiak Science’s proprietary platform for designing and developing drugs into the retina. The antibody in the KSI-301 molecule inhibits VEGF, while the biopolymer is comprised of phosphorylcholine, which creates a sort of “water cloak” around the antibody to increase its effectiveness.

Phosphorylcholine is a natural component of the cell membrane of all the cells in our body, with remarkable properties. It attracts and binds water in a very strong – even permanent – way, creating what is known as “structured water,” which then impacts all biological interactions in the local area.

Episode 2: Horseshoe crabs and recombinant factor C

Episode 2: Horseshoe crabs and recombinant factor C

September 6, 2021

Safe Jabs Thanks to Horseshoe Crabs: Making Sure Your Injection is Free of Endotoxins

Allen Burgenson, Lonza’s expert for all things testing, speaks to us about the dangers of endotoxin contamination and the future of non-animal testing for it.


“Before testing for endotoxins in the 1940s, a physician literally had to gauge the risk to your life because of something called injection fever,” explains Allen Burgenson. Luckily, we’ve come a long way since then. Thanks to advanced testing methods, one can rest assured today that any sort of injection or implant is completely free of dangerous endotoxins. Currently, the predominant mode is Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) testing, in which scientists harvest the bright blue blood of American Horseshoe Crabs and use the animal’s primitive immune system to look for clotting reactions that would indicate the presence of any endotoxins. The horseshoe crabs, Burgenson explains, survive the extraction unscathed and are safely returned to the waters in less than 24 hours. However, in a continual attempt to remove animals from the testing pipeline, Lonza’s recombinant factor C assay known as PyroGene could eventually replace LAL testing.

Curious to Know More?

In Episode 2 of the new season of the podcast A View On, host Martina Ribarhestericova speaks with Lonza expert Allen Burgenson to discuss his close bond with the American Horseshoe Crab and the history of testing for endotoxin contamination.



Endotoxins are parts of bacterial membranes that could lead to a harmful reaction – or even death – if they enter a patient’s bloodstream or spinal fluid. Surprisingly, we have kilograms of endotoxins in our stomachs, but even little more than a nanogram in the bloodstream could be deadly.

Bacterial endotoxin tests, or BETs, is the general name for all assays used to detect endotoxins.

Rabbit pyrogen tests are BETs that were developed in the 1940s using rabbits as test subjects. To ascertain the endotoxic danger to humans, the scientist observes a rabbit’s reaction to an injection over a period of 3 hours. The European Pharmacopoeia Commission decided in June 2021 to completely replace the rabbit pyrogen test (RPT) within approximately 5 years.

Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) is an aqueous extract of blood cells (amoebocytes) from the horseshoe crab, Limulus Polyphemus, that enables batch testing of vaccines and other drugs for endotoxins. The crab’s extracted blood is a surprising blue color due to the crabs’ copper-based Hamasyan. The obtained LAL is an opaque white-colored liquid that clots in the presence of any toxicity.

PyroGene recombinant factor C is an animal-free way to test for endotoxins. It was initially developed at the National University of Singapore by Lin Deng and her husband Bo Ho to save money on testing at their relatively small lab. Lonza collaborated with Deng and Ho to become the first company to offer the test on a commercial scale.

Episode 1: Oncolytic viruses

Episode 1: Oncolytic viruses

August 2, 2021

A Welcome Virus: Cracking the Viral Code for the Battle Against Cancer

Chairman and founder of PsiVac, Prof. Ghassan Alusi, and the chief operating officer, Imad Mardini, discuss how the company’s proprietary oncolytic virus platform offers new hope for cancer patients.

During a time when everyone actively fears viruses (especially THE virus) and their mutations, it is only cancer cells that have cause to worry about oncolytic viruses, and rightly so. These mutated viruses are administered directly into a tumor. Once inside, they crack open the tumor’s cells in a process known as lysing that provokes a strong response from the body’s immune system, which has, until then, ignored the cancerous cells. What’s more, the therapy’s attack doesn’t stop at a single tumor. The replicating and lysing viruses release previously hidden tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) that alert the immune system about cancer cells to attack all over the body. The body’s own immune system then goes on to destroy previously unrecognized tumors far removed from the initial injection point.

The biotech company PsiVac advances this technology even further by creating a treatment platform that transforms the adenovirus, aka the common cold, into an especially powerful oncolytic virus. A precision modification in the virus’s DNA improves its efficiency against cancer cells while making it harmless to other cells, rendering the treatment at once more effective and safer for patients.

“Now that the technologies of other forms of immunotherapy are gaining ground, and as cancer remains a major cause of mortality, we now understand there is a huge need for oncolytic viral therapy,” says Prof. Alusi, whose company has planned to start Phase 1 clinical trials later this year. Unlike other immunotherapies, such as patient-centric CAR T-cell therapy, oncolytic viruses can be made in relatively large quantities once their efficacy and safety have been proved.


Curious to Know More?

In the first episode of the new season of the podcast A View On, host Martina Ribar Hestericová discusses the current state of oncolytic viruses and their promising applications with Prof. Ghassan Alusi and Imad Mardini.



Cell lysing is the process of breaking down a cell’s membrane, destroying the cell and releasing its contents into the body. If an oncolytic virus lyses a cell, it releases replicated versions of itself as well as antigens helpful in the immune system’s fight against a tumor.

Tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) are released once a cancer cell is lysed, setting the previously dormant immune system into action. The release of TAAs means that the tumor is no longer successfully hiding from the immune system, and the body can begin to fight the disease by its own means.

The cytotoxicity of a virus is the extent to which a virus attacks and destroys cells, often an undesirable event. However, with oncolytic viruses, this cytotoxicity works in a patient’s favor, thanks to gene editing, by being specifically designed to attack cancer cells.

An agnostic oncolytic virus targets not only one or a group of cancers but is effective against all malignant solid palpable tumors. PsiVac’s modified adenovirus has proven agnostic so far, making it a powerful weapon in the fight against cancer.

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